Oral History J.C. McVickers Introduction AC# in process

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"As often happened, the first use of a new technology was in a secret military application. With computer chips it was the US Air Force's Minuteman II Missile program. These chips were manufactured on seven-eights of an inch diameter silicon wafers and the process yield was less than one percent. The logic was called "DTL" for "Diode Transistor Logic". The next generation was called "T Squared L" for "Transistor Transistor Logic". At that time (1963) there were only two production facilities in the world that could manufacture chips. They were operated by Texas Instruments and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. I managed the Westinghouse facilities."

Jack C. McVickers
Scottsdale, Arizona

Mr. McVickers was also interviewed to compliment the Chip Collection by Mr. Hal Becker, former CEO of ICE. The tapes of that interview have been transferred to CD and will be available in text when time permits. A written statement concerning the interview had been sent separately - we quote it here as additional research information.

" . . .One thing we discussed was how the early participants worked for the industry rather than for the company that was their employer. After I returned home I recalled one thing that we did not discuss that you might remember, or at least find illustrative of how this early network worked.

In the early days photo resist was all important. There was only one supplier of this organic material, the Kodak Company. Of course our industry was not a big user of this material so Kodak paid little attention to our needs. We basically had to take what we could get. It was a thick material and none of us knew what was in it. Someone discovered that we could submerge two electrodes in a batch of the material and then put 30,000 volts across the plates. This was a convenient voltage as it was available from the high voltage circuits of TV sets. Anyway, this process, which I believed was called "electrophoresis", had a beneficial effect on the photo resist. This processing would cause all sorts of unknown gunk to precipitate out of the solution and we were left with a much thinner material that we could use on the line.

The networking came in because we found that only a small number of Kodak's production lots would be of any value. It took a lot of trial and error to "FIND" which numbered lots would work. Then a "GOOD LOT" was found, we would attempt to buy up every batch of this lot that we could find at the distributor's warehouse. This information was put on the "network" and soon every company in the industry would be searching the country for these good lots. And it was not unheard of that one would phone a contact at a competitor's plant and "borrow" a few gallons of a "good lot" to keep a production line from being shut down.

And so the industry progressed at an unprecedented pace! . . . J.C. McVickers"


The following transcription of an early Westinghouse Technology publication thru Mr. McVickers is presented as a reference source. The original was scanned and we have included links to individual full pages.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, front cover Front Cover image: Westinghouse Technology publication, inside cover Inside Cover image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 1 page 1
Introduction/Contents
image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 3

3 Large-Scale Integrated Circuits Multichip Hybrid Package Receiver Protectors

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 4

4 Solid-State Microwave

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 5

5 Functional Modules A/D Converters

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 6

6 High Energy Lasers Underwater Acoustics

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 7

7 Bulk memories MNOS/CCD Processing

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 8
8 Photodiode and CCD Imaging
Westinghouse Systems and Technology Divisions
Systems Development Division

Develops new technology and creatively designs it into the advanced systems produced by the other divisions.

Aerospace and Electronic Systems Division

Designs, develops and produces airborne weapons control and guidance systems; electronic warfare systems; and airborne surveillance, reconnaissance, and mapping systems.

Command and Control Division

Designs, develops and produces airborne early warning and control systems; communications systems and surface-based electronic systems.

Oceanic Division
Designs, develops and manufactures underseas reconnaissance and surveillance systems; environmental monitoring and life-support systems; and ocean resource exploration systems.

page 1



image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 2, Scanning electron microscope for micro-electronic analysis.
Scanning electron microscope for micro-electronic analysis.
page 2

Large-Scale Integrated Circuits Multichip Hybrid Package Receiver Protectors

Large-scale integrated (LS1) circuits are inherently more reliable and can be produced at substantially lower cost per electronic function than conventional circuitry. Currently used in the Decision Information Distribution System, the large-scale integrated circuit shown is a CMOS "995 block" containing more than 2000 active devices. It functions as an asynchronous digital code-word discriminator with serial input and parallel output. This block can recognize 2048 separate patterns. Internal timing circuitry enables 52 secondary latching and re-latching cycles for maximum noise immunity.

* The multichip hybrid package is the best short-term answer to the rising demand for small, light low-cost but highly reliable electronic systems. Interconnecting different Integrated circuit chips and other solid-state components on a common substrate and then hermetically sealing them in a small package offers high reliability with extremely high component density. Our hybrid electronics facility is capable of making production quantities of these thin- and thick-film circuits while continuing to support research and development activities.

* Receiver protectors using a unique radioactive ignitor principle are being produced for several multimode radar systems. The ANI/AWG-10 receiver protector shown has a guaranteed life of 10,000 hours. Similar receiver protectors are being produced for the AN/APQ-120, Navy Terrier, and AWACS radars.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 3, Radioactive ignited ANI/AWG-10 receiver protector has guaranteed 10,000-hr life.

Radioactive ignited ANI/AWG-10 receiver protector has guaranteed 10,000-hr life.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 3, MHP is best short-term answer to demand for reliable, high-density, low-cost electronics.

MHP is best short-term answer to demand for reliable, high-density, low-cost electronics.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 3, This CMOS LSI for DIDS has more than 2000 active devices In a 0.016-in sq. area.

This CMOS LSI for DIDS has more than 2000 active devices In a 0.016-in2 area.
page 3


Solid-State Microwave

The inherent advantages of solid-state circuitry also apply at higher power and frequency levels. Although posing greater technological challenges, solid-state microwave Integrated circuit modules have been developed and fabricated successfully for many microwave system functions. Westinghouse has developed a production capability for such microwave modules which is competitive with major microwave device manufacturers.

Microwave integrated circuits emphasizing subsystem level complexity are currently being fabricated. The low conversion-loss image-enhanced mixer shown is an example. Developed for the solid-state aperture Modular Airborne Intercept Radar program, this device demonstrates conversion losses under 3.5 dB over a 500 MHz band. Also shown is an X-band integrated parametric amplifier developed for the US Army. For radiometry and classified programs, Westinghouse is well established in broadband solid-state millimeter-wave device technology.

Westinghouse produces extremely broadband up and down converters and GaAs Schottkey barrier diodes for our ECM systems. In addition, surface-wave acoustic delay lines are being produced for these countermeasure systems which exhibit our high resolution photographic capability for fabricating interdigital transducers. The delay line shown demonstrates a microwave integrated circuit complete with an equalizing network on the same substrate.

Microwave integrated circuits, such as the solid-state S-band low-noise amplifier below, are replacing non solid-state circuitry in many radar applications. These circuits are made using thick-film screen printing techniques and are much less costly than conventional thin-film circuits. More than 3000 of these low-noise amplifiers were produced recently to update the AN/FPS-27 radar receiver.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 4, X-band integrated parametric amplifier developed for US Army.

X-band integrated parametric amplifier developed for US Army.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 4, Solid-state, low-noise S-band amplifier for AN/FPS-27A radar modernization.

Solid-state, low-noise S-band amplifier for AN/FPS-27A radar modernization.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 4, Acoustic wave delay line with equalizing network.

Acoustic wave delay line with equalizing network.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 4, Low conversion-loss, image-enhanced mixer developed for USAF.

Low conversion-loss, image-enhanced mixer developed for USAF.

page 4


Functional Modules A/D Converters

The long-range solution for reliable, low-cost, high-performance electronic systems is the functional module - a solid-state electronic package interconnecting sufficient LAS and microwave integrated circuits and/or other discrete components to perform a specific function. The transmit/receive module shown produces an electronically steerable beam for multiple target tracking by phased-array radar systems. This functional building block, currently in production, combines power amplifiers, phase shifters, transmit/receive switches, circulators, and low-noise amplifiers on a single thick-film substrate.

By combining advanced packaging and solid-state microwave techniques, functional modules are reducing the cost and complexity while increasing the reliability of contemporary electronic systems. The L-band receiver below is another example of a solid-state subsystem module. This receiver consists of a clutter rejection, a low-noise amplifier, and a 30-MHz mixer. It is half the cost, an order of magnitude smaller, and provides better performance than a non-integrated receiver. These techniques are also being applied to power amplifiers. The 12 L-band modules shown, delivering 100 watts each, were interconnected to form a 1-kW peak power solid-state L-band amplifier. Westinghouse is currently under contract to deliver a similar amplifier producing a 1000 watts CW.

*The need for low-cost, high-performance analog-to-digital converters in emerging systems is continuously growing. Westinghouse maintains ongoing research to anticipate and develop required state-of-the-art converters. In addition to pursuing new ideas and techniques for increasing conversion speed and accuracy, Westinghouse converter development also emphasizes design simplicity, modularity, reliability, ease of manufacture, and low cost. Special emphasis is placed on A/D converters providing performance compliant with military specifications. The 9-bit, 1.5 MHz A/D converter below was recently produced for the prototype ARSR-3 air route surveillance radar. This low-cost, mil-spec converter is fabricated on a single 7-by 11 inch printed circuit card.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 5, This integrated L-band receiver resulted in 2:1 cost reduction with better performance than non integrated receivers.

This integrated L-band receiver resulted in 2:1 cost reduction with
better performance than non integrated receivers.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 5, Solid-state 100-W modules of a kilowatt L-band amplifier.

Solid-state 100-W modules of a kilowatt L-band amplifier.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 5, Transmit/receive functional module for an advanced phased array radar system.

Transmit/receive functional module for an advanced phased array radar system.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 5, Low-cost A/D converter built on a single 7 - by 11-inch PC card.

Low-cost A/D converter built on a single 7 - by 11-inch PC card.

page 5


High Energy Lasers Underwater Acoustics

Since the emergence of the gas laser as a high-energy source of coherent radiation in the late 1960's, Westinghouse has been conducting extensive research and development of this technology. Current programs are exploring and characterizing the performance of various gases with emission wavelengths in the 0.5 - to 10.6- micron range and gas excitation techniques which include ultraviolet preinitiation electrical discharges. These programs use the combined talents of engineers and scientists from the Advanced Technology Laboratories as well as the resources of the Westinghouse Research Laboratories.

Laser cavity work is supported by other related programs to develop: high-power, solid-state devices for an advanced modular line pulser applicable to all electrical-discharge lasers; an advanced light-weight multimegawatt alternator using superconducting technology as the prime power source for high-power electrical discharge lasers; correlation tracking techniques for improved beam positioning capability; and supporting system studies related to target detection, tracking, damage assessment, and other system related functions.

" Transducer technology improvements are key to the development of better sonar detection systems, ASW homing and deception systems, underwater acoustic range trackers and ship positioners, and acoustic flow measurement.

Among the many on-going transducer research and development programs, two are of particular interest: the resonant bubble transducer and the double trilaminar disc transducer. The resonant bubble transducer, which resonates from 25 to 50 Hz, is being developed to study resonant bubble design technology. The light-weight, compact double trilaminar flexural disc is highly desirable when a low-frequency, high-power, high-efficiency projector is required. A composite of aluminum sandwiched between layers of ceramic, the characteristics of this disc are predicted by a computer program tailored to customer requirements. A coplanar configuration of this disc is currently under investigation.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 6, Experimental E-bream-sustained cylindrical laser system.

Experimental E-bream-sustained cylindrical laser system.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 6, MK-27 ring transducer in free-flooded testing.

MK-27 ring transducer in free-flooded testing.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 6, Trilaminar flexural disc transducer pressure tested in Underwater Sound Laboratory.

Trilaminar flexural disc transducer pressure tested in Underwater Sound Laboratory.

page 6


Bulk Memories MNOS/CCD Processing

Solid-state memory technology offers a viable approach to high-density, low-energy memories. Westinghouse pioneered the MNOS technology that led to the bulk memories of today. The bulk memory module shown on the penny is a 2048-bit nonvolatile random access memory (RAM). It was configured for use in the block-oriented RAM, or BORAM, which is an 18-million-bit memory for use in a ground-based fire-control and division command and control center. BORAM is a replacement for disc memory and has a guaranteed retention of 4000 hours.

Westinghouse is currently developing unique, nonvolatile, charge-addressed memory (NOVCAM) cell which will provide 33,000 bits of nonvolatile storage with support circuitry on a 0.18-inch square chip. This memory cell ("M" in the photograph) is addressed sequentially by a CCD shift register with the data stored in an adjacent MNOS structure. This memory cell provides advantages of lower power consumption and a lower total number of error bits over a dynamic cell.

" Signal processing capability has been significantly increased by optimizing the best features of CCD and MNOS. Such an optimization can be attained by a combination of these devices on a single substrate. The two 64-stage CCD registers are shown below. The top register is a serial input/parallel output cell with reprogrammable weighted taps utilizing MNOS devices. The lower register is a serial input/parallel output cell with nondestructive parallel taps. These circuits form the basic building blocks for discrete analog signal processing (DASP) applicable to radar, sonar, communications, or electronic countermeasures. By eliminating analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions and performing functions with discrete analog signal processing instead, substantial reductions in system size, weight,, and power are achieved while reliability is increased.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 7, MNOS/CCD circuits labeled I1 are the basic building blocks for discrete analog signal processing in many electronic systems.

MNOS/CCD circuits labeled I1 are the basic building blocks for
discrete analog signal processing in many electronic systems.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 7, A replacement for disc memory, BORAM chip provides 2048 bits of nonvolatile memory.

A replacement for disc memory,
BORAM chip provides 2048 bits of nonvolatile memory.

page 7


Photodiode and CCD lmaging Technology to Systems

High quality imagery is currently being obtained from the 18-chip photodiode detector shown. This linear array imager is approximately an inch long and uses self-scanned MOS circuit fabrication techniques. Each chip contains 96 photodiode detectors, electrometer amplifiers, gates, and four 24-bit shift registers. This array is designed for flat image plane but a curved image plane is easily fabricated. This technology will be used to fabricate a future sensor for Earth observation satellites.

Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are semi-conductors using controlled movement of electric charge to perform sensor functions. Westinghouse uses a 2- or 3-phase silicon gate CCD to read out the photocharge accumulated within the optical sensor. Correlated output signals from the array are provided by CMOS readout circuits on the CCD sensor chip. Two-phase silicon gate CCD line arrays (below), which produced the image shown, are incorporated into area imaging arrays to eliminate mechanical scanning. CCD is one of the simpler fabrication techniques for solid-state imaging devices and thus provides high reliability and yield at low cost.

" Some of the research activity from this broad spectrum of scientific investigation progresses to demonstration phase. This is the phase in which a technical achievement is sufficiently refined to be demonstrated as a functional package. Such technical demonstration work is performed jointly by the laboratories and development groups.

If several of these functional packages can be put together to provide a specific capability satisfying customer requirement, then the project progresses to the subsystem development phase which is usually performed under contract and, when successful, provides the feasibility demonstration necessary for full program go-ahead. This work is performed by a program office which can focus full corporate resources on the program in order to demonstrate the required performance.

The final step is assembly of the various subsystems in major systems. This is the culmination of the long flow of technology from early research to a fully programmed capability which fulfills strategic national needs. Such major programs employ the full resources of Westinghouse and often represent significant subcontracting within the aerospace industry. But it all begins with our ability to stay abreast, and often ahead, of the everchanging state of the art.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 8, Smaller than a postage stamp, this 1728-element linear photodiode array produced the high-resolution imagery shown without mechanical scanning.

Smaller than a postage stamp, this 1728-element linear photodiode array
produced the high-resolution imagery shown without mechanical scanning.

image: Westinghouse Technology publication, page 8, Two-phase silicon-gate CCD imaging line arrays (line of green dots) produced imagery shown and promise to replace photodiodes as the sensor of the future.

Two-phase silicon-gate CCD imaging line arrays (line of green dots)
produced imagery shown and promise to replace photodiodes as the sensor of the future.

page 8


image: Westinghouse Technology publication, inside back cover Inside Back Cover image: Westinghouse Technology publication, back cover Back Cover

END


additional resource data:
J.C. McVickers
Allied Signal Aerospace Company
Phoenix, Arizona

CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY PROJECT DATA BASE:
September 1992 SUMMARY REPORT
by: B. L. P. Keyes
Published: June 1993 EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION PRELIMINARY DATA ONLY

SOURCE:
http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/10179679-PL1S95/10179679.PDF
CAUTION DSL/CABLE SUGGESTED 176 pages 8.4 MB download




National Museum of American History


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