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Please be patient while we process this collection - due to the popularity
of this particular history we are providing what we have prepared at this
time concerning the McVickers' material.
"As often happened, the first use of a new technology
was in a secret military application. With computer chips it was the US
Air Force's Minuteman II Missile program. These chips were manufactured
on seven-eights of an inch diameter silicon wafers and the process yield
was less than one percent. The logic was called "DTL" for "Diode
Transistor Logic". The next generation was called "T Squared
L" for "Transistor Transistor Logic". At that time (1963)
there were only two production facilities in the world that could manufacture
chips. They were operated by Texas Instruments and the Westinghouse Electric
Corporation. I managed the Westinghouse facilities."
Jack C. McVickers
Mr. McVickers was also interviewed to compliment the Chip
Collection by Mr. Hal Becker, former CEO of ICE. The tapes of that interview
have been transferred to CD and will be available in text when time permits.
A written statement concerning the interview had been sent separately - we quote
it here as additional research information.
" . . .One thing we discussed was how the early participants
worked for the industry rather than for the company that was their employer.
After I returned home I recalled one thing that we did not discuss that
you might remember, or at least find illustrative of how this early network
In the early days photo resist was all important. There
was only one supplier of this organic material, the Kodak Company. Of
course our industry was not a big user of this material so Kodak paid
little attention to our needs. We basically had to take what we could
get. It was a thick material and none of us knew what was in it. Someone
discovered that we could submerge two electrodes in a batch of the material
and then put 30,000 volts across the plates. This was a convenient voltage
as it was available from the high voltage circuits of TV sets. Anyway,
this process, which I believed was called "electrophoresis",
had a beneficial effect on the photo resist. This processing would cause
all sorts of unknown gunk to precipitate out of the solution and we were
left with a much thinner material that we could use on the line.
The networking came in because we found that only a small
number of Kodak's production lots would be of any value. It took a lot
of trial and error to "FIND" which numbered lots would work.
Then a "GOOD LOT" was found, we would attempt to buy up every
batch of this lot that we could find at the distributor's warehouse. This
information was put on the "network" and soon every company
in the industry would be searching the country for these good lots. And
it was not unheard of that one would phone a contact at a competitor's
plant and "borrow" a few gallons of a "good lot" to
keep a production line from being shut down.
And so the industry progressed at an unprecedented pace!
. . . J.C. McVickers"
The following transcription of an early Westinghouse Technology
publication thru Mr. McVickers is presented as a reference source. The
original was scanned and we have included links to individual full pages.
Large-Scale Integrated Circuits Multichip Hybrid Package Receiver
Functional Modules A/D Converters
High Energy Lasers Underwater Acoustics
Bulk memories MNOS/CCD Processing
Photodiode and CCD Imaging
Systems and Technology Divisions
Develops new technology and creatively designs it into the advanced
systems produced by the other divisions.
and Electronic Systems Division
develops and produces airborne weapons control and guidance systems;
electronic warfare systems; and airborne surveillance, reconnaissance,
and mapping systems.
and Control Division
develops and produces airborne early warning and control systems;
communications systems and surface-based electronic systems.
Designs, develops and manufactures underseas reconnaissance and
surveillance systems; environmental monitoring and life-support
systems; and ocean resource exploration systems.
electron microscope for micro-electronic analysis.
Integrated Circuits Multichip Hybrid Package Receiver Protectors
Large-scale integrated (LS1) circuits are inherently more reliable
and can be produced at substantially lower cost per electronic
function than conventional circuitry. Currently used in the Decision
Information Distribution System, the large-scale integrated circuit
shown is a CMOS "995 block" containing more than 2000 active devices.
It functions as an asynchronous digital code-word discriminator
with serial input and parallel output. This block can recognize
2048 separate patterns. Internal timing circuitry enables 52 secondary
latching and re-latching cycles for maximum noise immunity.
* The multichip hybrid package is the best short-term answer to
the rising demand for small, light low-cost but highly reliable
electronic systems. Interconnecting different Integrated circuit
chips and other solid-state components on a common substrate and
then hermetically sealing them in a small package offers high
reliability with extremely high component density. Our hybrid
electronics facility is capable of making production quantities
of these thin- and thick-film circuits while continuing to support
research and development activities.
* Receiver protectors using a unique radioactive ignitor principle
are being produced for several multimode radar systems. The ANI/AWG-10
receiver protector shown has a guaranteed life of 10,000 hours.
Similar receiver protectors are being produced for the AN/APQ-120,
Navy Terrier, and AWACS radars.
ignited ANI/AWG-10 receiver protector has guaranteed 10,000-hr
is best short-term answer to demand for reliable, high-density,
CMOS LSI for DIDS has more than 2000 active devices In a 0.016-in2
inherent advantages of solid-state circuitry also apply at higher
power and frequency levels. Although posing greater technological
challenges, solid-state microwave Integrated circuit modules have
been developed and fabricated successfully for many microwave
system functions. Westinghouse has developed a production capability
for such microwave modules which is competitive with major microwave
integrated circuits emphasizing subsystem level complexity are
currently being fabricated. The low conversion-loss image-enhanced
mixer shown is an example. Developed for the solid-state aperture
Modular Airborne Intercept Radar program, this device demonstrates
conversion losses under 3.5 dB over a 500 MHz band. Also shown
is an X-band integrated parametric amplifier developed for the
US Army. For radiometry and classified programs, Westinghouse
is well established in broadband solid-state millimeter-wave device
Westinghouse produces extremely broadband up and down converters
and GaAs Schottkey barrier diodes for our ECM systems. In addition,
surface-wave acoustic delay lines are being produced for these
countermeasure systems which exhibit our high resolution photographic
capability for fabricating interdigital transducers. The delay
line shown demonstrates a microwave integrated circuit complete
with an equalizing network on the same substrate.
Microwave integrated circuits, such as the solid-state S-band
low-noise amplifier below, are replacing non solid-state circuitry
in many radar applications. These circuits are made using thick-film
screen printing techniques and are much less costly than conventional
thin-film circuits. More than 3000 of these low-noise amplifiers
were produced recently to update the AN/FPS-27 radar receiver.
integrated parametric amplifier developed for US Army.
low-noise S-band amplifier for AN/FPS-27A radar modernization.
wave delay line with equalizing network.
conversion-loss, image-enhanced mixer developed for USAF.
Modules A/D Converters
long-range solution for reliable, low-cost, high-performance electronic
systems is the functional module - a solid-state electronic package
interconnecting sufficient LAS and microwave integrated circuits
and/or other discrete components to perform a specific function.
The transmit/receive module shown produces an electronically steerable
beam for multiple target tracking by phased-array radar systems.
This functional building block, currently in production, combines
power amplifiers, phase shifters, transmit/receive switches, circulators,
and low-noise amplifiers on a single thick-film substrate.
combining advanced packaging and solid-state microwave techniques,
functional modules are reducing the cost and complexity while
increasing the reliability of contemporary electronic systems.
The L-band receiver below is another example of a solid-state
subsystem module. This receiver consists of a clutter rejection,
a low-noise amplifier, and a 30-MHz mixer. It is half the cost,
an order of magnitude smaller, and provides better performance
than a non-integrated receiver. These techniques are also being
applied to power amplifiers. The 12 L-band modules shown, delivering
100 watts each, were interconnected to form a 1-kW peak power
solid-state L-band amplifier. Westinghouse is currently under
contract to deliver a similar amplifier producing a 1000 watts
need for low-cost, high-performance analog-to-digital converters
in emerging systems is continuously growing. Westinghouse maintains
ongoing research to anticipate and develop required state-of-the-art
converters. In addition to pursuing new ideas and techniques for
increasing conversion speed and accuracy, Westinghouse converter
development also emphasizes design simplicity, modularity, reliability,
ease of manufacture, and low cost. Special emphasis is placed
on A/D converters providing performance compliant with military
specifications. The 9-bit, 1.5 MHz A/D converter below was recently
produced for the prototype ARSR-3 air route surveillance radar.
This low-cost, mil-spec converter is fabricated on a single 7-by
11 inch printed circuit card.
integrated L-band receiver resulted in 2:1 cost reduction with
better performance than non integrated receivers.
100-W modules of a kilowatt L-band amplifier.
functional module for an advanced phased array radar system.
A/D converter built on a single 7 - by 11-inch PC card.
Energy Lasers Underwater Acoustics
the emergence of the gas laser as a high-energy source of coherent
radiation in the late 1960's, Westinghouse has been conducting
extensive research and development of this technology. Current
programs are exploring and characterizing the performance of various
gases with emission wavelengths in the 0.5 - to 10.6- micron range
and gas excitation techniques which include ultraviolet preinitiation
electrical discharges. These programs use the combined talents
of engineers and scientists from the Advanced Technology Laboratories
as well as the resources of the Westinghouse Research Laboratories.
cavity work is supported by other related programs to develop:
high-power, solid-state devices for an advanced modular line pulser
applicable to all electrical-discharge lasers; an advanced light-weight
multimegawatt alternator using superconducting technology as the
prime power source for high-power electrical discharge lasers;
correlation tracking techniques for improved beam positioning
capability; and supporting system studies related to target detection,
tracking, damage assessment, and other system related functions.
Transducer technology improvements are key to the development
of better sonar detection systems, ASW homing and deception systems,
underwater acoustic range trackers and ship positioners, and acoustic
the many on-going transducer research and development programs,
two are of particular interest: the resonant bubble transducer
and the double trilaminar disc transducer. The resonant bubble
transducer, which resonates from 25 to 50 Hz, is being developed
to study resonant bubble design technology. The light-weight,
compact double trilaminar flexural disc is highly desirable when
a low-frequency, high-power, high-efficiency projector is required.
A composite of aluminum sandwiched between layers of ceramic,
the characteristics of this disc are predicted by a computer program
tailored to customer requirements. A coplanar configuration of
this disc is currently under investigation.
Experimental E-bream-sustained cylindrical laser system.
ring transducer in free-flooded testing.
flexural disc transducer pressure tested in Underwater Sound Laboratory.
Memories MNOS/CCD Processing
memory technology offers a viable approach to high-density, low-energy
memories. Westinghouse pioneered the MNOS technology that led
to the bulk memories of today. The bulk memory module shown on
the penny is a 2048-bit nonvolatile random access memory (RAM).
It was configured for use in the block-oriented RAM, or BORAM,
which is an 18-million-bit memory for use in a ground-based fire-control
and division command and control center. BORAM is a replacement
for disc memory and has a guaranteed retention of 4000 hours.
is currently developing unique, nonvolatile, charge-addressed
memory (NOVCAM) cell which will provide 33,000 bits of nonvolatile
storage with support circuitry on a 0.18-inch square chip. This
memory cell ("M" in the photograph) is addressed sequentially
by a CCD shift register with the data stored in an adjacent MNOS
structure. This memory cell provides advantages of lower power
consumption and a lower total number of error bits over a dynamic
Signal processing capability has been significantly increased
by optimizing the best features of CCD and MNOS. Such an optimization
can be attained by a combination of these devices on a single
substrate. The two 64-stage CCD registers are shown below. The
top register is a serial input/parallel output cell with reprogrammable
weighted taps utilizing MNOS devices. The lower register is a
serial input/parallel output cell with nondestructive parallel
taps. These circuits form the basic building blocks for discrete
analog signal processing (DASP) applicable to radar, sonar, communications,
or electronic countermeasures. By eliminating analog-to-digital
and digital-to-analog conversions and performing functions with
discrete analog signal processing instead, substantial reductions
in system size, weight,, and power are achieved while reliability
circuits labeled I1
are the basic building blocks for
discrete analog signal processing in many electronic systems.
replacement for disc memory,
BORAM chip provides 2048 bits of nonvolatile memory.
and CCD lmaging Technology to Systems
quality imagery is currently being obtained from the 18-chip photodiode
detector shown. This linear array imager is approximately an inch
long and uses self-scanned MOS circuit fabrication techniques.
Each chip contains 96 photodiode detectors, electrometer amplifiers,
gates, and four 24-bit shift registers. This array is designed
for flat image plane but a curved image plane is easily fabricated.
This technology will be used to fabricate a future sensor for
Earth observation satellites.
devices (CCD) are semi-conductors using controlled movement of
electric charge to perform sensor functions. Westinghouse uses
a 2- or 3-phase silicon gate CCD to read out the photocharge accumulated
within the optical sensor. Correlated output signals from the
array are provided by CMOS readout circuits on the CCD sensor
chip. Two-phase silicon gate CCD line arrays (below), which produced
the image shown, are incorporated into area imaging arrays to
eliminate mechanical scanning. CCD is one of the simpler fabrication
techniques for solid-state imaging devices and thus provides high
reliability and yield at low cost.
Some of the research activity from this broad spectrum of scientific
investigation progresses to demonstration phase. This is the phase
in which a technical achievement is sufficiently refined to be
demonstrated as a functional package. Such technical demonstration
work is performed jointly by the laboratories and development
several of these functional packages can be put together to provide
a specific capability satisfying customer requirement, then the
project progresses to the subsystem development phase which is
usually performed under contract and, when successful, provides
the feasibility demonstration necessary for full program go-ahead.
This work is performed by a program office which can focus full
corporate resources on the program in order to demonstrate the
final step is assembly of the various subsystems in major systems.
This is the culmination of the long flow of technology from early
research to a fully programmed capability which fulfills strategic
national needs. Such major programs employ the full resources
of Westinghouse and often represent significant subcontracting
within the aerospace industry. But it all begins with our ability
to stay abreast, and often ahead, of the everchanging state of
than a postage stamp, this 1728-element linear photodiode array
produced the high-resolution imagery shown without mechanical
silicon-gate CCD imaging line arrays (line of green dots)
produced imagery shown and promise to replace photodiodes as the
sensor of the future.
Inside Back Cover
Allied Signal Aerospace Company
TECHNOLOGY PROJECT DATA BASE:
September 1992 SUMMARY REPORT
by: B. L. P. Keyes
Published: June 1993 EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION PRELIMINARY DATA ONLY
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